Beijing roast duck is a world-renowned Beijing dish that originated during the Northern and Southern Dynasties in China. The “Food Treasure Record” already records grilled duck, which was a famous palace dish at that time. The material used is high-quality meat duck, roasted with fruit wood charcoal fire, with a rosy color, fat but not greasy meat, crispy on the outside and tender on the inside. Beijing roast duck is divided into two major schools, and the most famous roast duck restaurant in Beijing is also a representative of both schools. It is known as the “world’s delicacy” due to its bright red color, tender meat, mellow taste, and fat but not greasy characteristics.
Chinese name: 北京烤鸭
Foreign name: Beijing coast duck
Taste: Delicate meat with a rich taste
Main ingredients: Beijing stuffed duck
Suitable audience: suitable for all ages
During the early Ming Dynasty, the common people loved to eat Nanjing salted duck, and the emperor also loved to eat it. It is said that Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang had “one roasted duck for daily consumption”. The royal chefs in the palace tried to develop new ways of eating duck dishes to please the Long Live Lord, so they also developed two types of roast duck: barbecued duck and braised oven roast duck. Barbecued roast duck is represented by “Quanjude”, while braised roast duck is most famous by “Cheap Fang”. Jinling roast duck is made from fat grass duck, with a net weight requirement of around 2.5 kilograms.
It is said that after Ming Chengzu (also known as Zhu Di) usurped the throne and relocated his capital to Beijing, he also took away many experts in Nanjing’s roast duck. During the Jiajing period, roast duck spread from the palace to the people, and the old “Cheap Fang” roast duck restaurant was listed and opened in the rice market alleys of Caishikou, which was also the first roast duck restaurant in Beijing. At that time, the name was “Jinling Sliced Duck”, and there was a special line of small characters on the front of the old “Cheap Shop”: Jinling Roast Duck.
In 1864, the most famous “Quanjude” roast duck restaurant in the capital was also listed and opened, and the roast duck technology developed into the “hanging furnace” era. It is roasted with fruit wood over an open fire and has a unique fragrance. It not only makes the roast duck fragrant for thousands of miles, but also replaces “Nanjing roast duck” with “Beijing roast duck”. “Jinling sliced duck” can only be seen on menus in several major cities in the south, such as Hong Kong, Macao, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou.
After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the reputation of Beijing roast duck grew day by day and became even more famous worldwide. It is said that Premier Zhou greatly appreciated and paid attention to this famous dish during his lifetime, entertaining foreign guests and tasting roast duck. In order to meet the needs of social development, the roasting operation of duck restaurants has become more modern and the flavor is more precious. The most brilliant aspect of the roast duck family is Quanjude, which established the Beijing image ambassador status of the roast duck family. Yang Quanren, the founder of “Quanjude”, was a small businessman in the business of chicken and duck. After accumulating capital, he founded the Quanjude roast duck Store. He hired a roast duck master who worked in the imperial dining room of the Qing Dynasty to refine the roast duck with the palace’s “hanging oven roast duck” technology, making the “hanging oven roast duck” popular among the people. Quanjude adopts the hanging oven roasting method and does not open the duck’s mouth. Just make a small hole in the duck’s body, take out the internal organs, pour boiling water into the duck’s belly, and then tie the small hole and hang it on the fire for roasting. This method not only prevents the duck from losing water due to roasting, but also allows the duck’s skin to expand and not be softened. The roasted duck skin is very thin and crispy, making it the most delicious part of roasted duck. The hanging furnace has holes without doors, and uses fruit trees such as jujube wood and pear wood as fuel, using an open flame. When firing fruit trees, there is no smoke, a strong base fire, and a long burning time. The roasted duck has a plump appearance, a jujube red color, a crispy outer layer, a burnt outer layer, and a tender inner layer, with a hint of fruity wood fragrance. When refined, the taste is even more wonderful. Strictly speaking, only this roasting method is called Beijing roast duck. Compared to hanging oven roast duck, braised oven roast duck represented by Cheap Fang seems to be less impressive in people’s minds. Fortunately, Cheap Fang, a time-honored brand with nearly 600 years of history, has applied for “National Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection” with its braised oven roast duck technique. Founded during the Yongle period of the Ming Dynasty, Cheap Fang Braised Oven Roast Duck has an earlier history compared to Quanjude’s reputation, with a history of nearly 600 years. The so-called “stewing furnace” is actually a type of underground furnace, with a furnace body made of bricks and a size of about one meter square. Its production method was first introduced from the south to Beijing, characterized by “no open flame for ducks”, which is made by roasting the charcoal fire inside the furnace and the heated furnace wall. Due to the need for a dark fire, a high level of skill is required. The person in charge of the furnace must control the temperature inside the furnace well. If the temperature is too high, the duck will be burnt, otherwise it will not be cooked. The skin of the braised oven roast duck is shiny and crispy, and the meat is white and tender, with a delicious taste. Roast duck in a stewing oven is a signature of Cheap Fang, but the stewing oven for burning sorghum straw has already been changed to an electric stewing oven. Nowadays, there are very few roast duck restaurants that use braising ovens, and most of them use the Quanjude hanging oven roasting method. The taste of braised duck in the oven is more tender, and the juice of the duck skin is also significantly richer and fuller. The fruity and woody aroma of hanging oven roast duck seems to make people more aware of the wisdom of the earliest “roasting” cooking method mastered by humans.
Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant (slightly less famous than the above two, but also very delicious) is located diagonally opposite the center of Beijing and Guangzhou. The cuisine is very exquisite, and it is truly grilled with apple wood. The taste and taste are beyond description. Mr. Da Dong comes from Quanjude. You must try adding some garlic puree to the lotus leaf cake. It’s exceptionally delicious, and the waiter will teach you how to eat it.
Nowadays, hanging oven roast duck and braised oven roast duck are two major schools of roast duck in Beijing. Just like the abandoned land of Beijing roast duck in the past improved Shandong roast duck, many restaurants that make roast duck have also made improvements to these two traditional schools that are suitable for modern taste and consumption ideas. For example, the key interpretation of roast duck eating skin, such as the special selection of duck varieties by the Little Prince’s Mansion, and even the replacement of shredded scallions with cucumber strips in many places, these transformations without losing focus are all good. As for the gold foil roast duck produced in some places, it has a slightly mysterious taste. Of course, authentic roast duck restaurants naturally taste great.
Traditional time-honored brands win through craftsmanship
In the 9 trading days since its listing, Quanjude has frantically pulled out 8 limit up boards, making people crazy. Xing Ying, the general manager of Quanjude Group, once revealed that all the 400 million yuan raised from the listing will be used to upgrade the supply and marketing chain of Quanjude. At the same time, their electronic duck roaster will gradually be popularized in stores. As a result, the electronic duck roaster sparked a lot of criticism.
Some experts pointed out that the craftsmanship of Quanjude roast duck, which has been passed down for hundreds of years, is part of the traditional culture of Quanjude and should be preserved. If all the roast ducks are produced by industrial production lines, obviously the cultural connotation contained in them will be greatly reduced.
Automation and standardization are good things, but they are not the ‘Bible’ of every industry. The reason why Quanjude can sell a set of 198 yuan at a high price is because these roast ducks are handmade art pieces, not industrial products produced by machines in bulk. This is the same as the current popularity of handicrafts. “Consumers said.
According to a survey, the key factors that have enabled the public to select time-honored brands to inherit them are: unique and mature craftsmanship (57.3%), rich cultural connotations (28.5%), complete social reputation and recognition (6.3%), representative services and products (5.2%), and continuous adoption of the latest technology (2.7%). 62.8% of respondents are concerned that if they switch to electronic ovens, roast duck will “become a street fast food among KFC’s elite”.
It is said that the roast duck there still maintains traditional craftsmanship to this day.
Braised oven technology focuses on nutrition
There are many famous roast duck brands in the time-honored Cheap Fang, such as braised oven roast duck and crispy roast duck, which are worth boasting about. In 2007, Professor Zhao Lin, the chief nutrition expert in China, announced to the public that Cheap Fang’s patented braised oven roast duck with vegetables and crispy crispy crispy crispy crispy crispy crispy vegetables had higher nutritional analysis components than traditional roast duck based on third-party joint testing results. Cheap Fang borrowed a patent for vegetable flavored crispy stewed duck to play a nutritional role and achieved a small victory in marketing.
The person in charge of Cheap Fang stated that the purpose of hiring a nutrition consultant is to promise customers that Cheap Fang not only pays attention to their dietary preferences, but also cares about their healthy diet. Vegetable flavored crispy patented roast duck is a patented stewed oven roast duck that can only be produced and sold after strict training and training.
Nutrition expert, researcher at the Nutrition Department of the General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army Professor Zhao Lin, the chief expert of health education at the Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China, released the nutritional analysis results of the “Trace Elements Room of the Nutrition Department of the General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army” and the “National Vegetable Engineering Technology Research Center” on the innovative braised oven roast duck “Vegetable Fragrant Crisp” at Cheyefang: The process of vegetable flavored crispy roast duck significantly increases the content of mineral elements such as potassium and calcium, as well as trace elements such as manganese, iron, and copper, compared to ordinary roast duck. However, the fat and calories in the duck breast meat are significantly reduced, and the carbohydrate content increases, but it does not affect the protein content in the roast duck. The comprehensive analysis results show that the cooking technology of vegetable flavored crispy roast duck has improved the health function of food during the ‘Dingzhong Change’. Free amino acids The acid determination results showed that some amino acid components that affect the fishy taste of roasted duck significantly decreased, while the amino acid components that increase flavor and freshness significantly increased
Through this nutritional evaluation, Cheap Fang has labeled its roast duck as “environmentally friendly roast duck”, famous “healthy roast duck”, “safe roast duck”, and “nutritious roast duck”, which is different from the roast ducks produced by other enterprises and has its own brand characteristics.
Segmented market targeting high-end consumers
Beijing Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant (formerly known as Beijing Roast Duck Restaurant) was established on April 28, 1985. In 2001, it was restructured by the state, and General Manager Dong Zhenxiang was nicknamed Da Dong by his friends, hence his name. The Dadong roast duck restaurant, which has always been positioned as a high-end restaurant, is also one of the main destinations for foreign guests to taste roast duck.
In 2007, two more plaques were added to the walls of the lobby of Beijing Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant: one was the “Five Diamond” restaurant sign issued by the National Restaurant Evaluation Committee, and the other was the “Five Star” sign issued by the Beijing Tourism Bureau. These signs won a place in the competition for roasted duck marketing. The staff of Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant said that Beijing Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant is praised by foreigners in the Beijing roast duck industry as a must-see tourist attraction besides climbing the Great Wall and going to Sanlitun. It is a key destination in many foreign edited Beijing travel guides.
Beijing Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant is playing a cultural card in its marketing, publishing cultural articles, and adhering to its own high-end line. Sitting at the Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant, looking around, the walls evolved from the window frames of the Ming and Qing imperial palaces, with classic and exquisite craftsmanship, and elegant and elegant copper nails embedded in them. The smoky skirt paired with a bright yellow tablecloth cleverly portrays the fabric art of traditional Chinese culture at the construction site, without falling out of style. Especially the bright yellow Chinese knot on the dining chairs becomes the finishing touch in the restaurant.
Outside the restaurant window, the bamboo leaves are green and the bamboo branches are tall and straight. In a leisurely atmosphere, it feels like a bamboo grove elegant person in the midst of green mountains and waters. Eating in such an elegant environment is no longer an artistic conception that can be expressed by “the fragrance and beauty of the dishes”. The comfortable and elegant dining environment, the essence of traditional culture, and the clever combination of modern art form the fashionable cultural atmosphere of Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant.
The first way to eat Beijing roast duck is said to have been initiated by the ladies and ladies in the big house. They neither eat scallions nor garlic, but prefer to dip the crispy and crispy duck skin in fine white sugar to eat. Afterwards, as soon as the female guests arrived at Quanjude’s restaurant, they would inevitably follow the roast duck and serve a small plate of white sugar.
The second way to eat Beijing roast duck is to add sweet noodle sauce with scallion strips, which can be paired with cucumber strips or radish strips. Use chopsticks to pick a little sweet noodle sauce, spread it on the lotus leaf cake, cover it with a few pieces of roast duck, and then add a few scallion strips, cucumber strips, or radish strips. Roll up the lotus leaf cake, and it is truly delicious.
The third way to eat Beijing roast duck is to add garlic paste with sweet noodle sauce, or to match with radish sticks. Using lotus leaf pancakes to roll duck meat was also a popular seasoning in the early years. Garlic puree can relieve oil and fat. Dip sliced roasted duck in garlic puree and sweet noodle sauce to add a hint of spiciness and a unique flavor. Many customers have a particular preference for this seasoning.
1. Raw material treatment: Choose 2.5 to 3 kilograms of healthy ducks, use the three tube method to slaughter and bleed, blanch with water at 55 to 60 ℃ for about 3 minutes. The blanching and plucking operations should be light and fast, and the hair should be plucked clean without damaging the skin. Then, make a small incision under the duck wing to remove the internal organs. When plucking, the action should be fast, and the internal organs should be intact and not broken. Remove the duck feet and wings, and then rinse the chamber, neck, and beak thoroughly, Remove the soft tissue from the intestines and cavity of the duck, ensuring that the duck skin is free of blood stains.
2. Scalding and coloring: Heat the duck body with malt sugar boiling water, from top to bottom 3-4 times, and then pour sugar water over the duck body. Generally, sugar water is prepared in a 1:6-7 ratio of malt sugar and water.
3. Cool the duck: Hang the scalded and colored duck in a cool and ventilated place to dry the duck’s skin. Generally, cool the duck for 24 hours in spring and autumn, and 4-6 hours in summer.
4. Roasting: First, block the duck’s anus with a stopper, pour boiling water into the neck through the knife, called pouring soup, and then color it again before entering the oven. The best wood used for Beijing roast duck is jujube wood, followed by peach, apricot, and pear wood. After the wood is ignited and the furnace temperature rises to over 200 ℃, the duck can be roasted. The temperature of the roasted duck is crucial, and the furnace temperature is generally controlled between 250-300 ℃. During the roasting process, the direction of the duck is adjusted based on the color of the duck. It usually takes about 30 minutes to roast. The degree of maturity can also be determined based on the color inside the duck when it is out of the oven. When the soup is pink, it indicates that the duck is 7-8 minutes ripe, while when the soup is light white, it is 9-10 minutes ripe, But when the soup is milky white, it indicates that it has been overcooked. Be sure to pay attention to this point.
5. After the duck is cooked, it is best to immediately apply a layer of sesame oil to increase the brightness of the duck skin.
Dish name: Beijing stuffed duck
Affiliated cuisine: Beijing cuisine
Ingredients: light duck (about four pounds), Beijing scallions or scallion sections (two pieces), sweet noodle sauce (two tablespoons), pancakes (appropriate amount), green melon (cut into strips) (half)
Ingredients: salt (two teaspoons), wine (one tablespoon)
Duck skin dressing: maltose (2 tablespoons), water (3 cups)
1. Make a hole outside the bottom of the duck’s wing, remove the intestines (please ask the duck stall to handle it), wash thoroughly, and apply the ingredients evenly to the duck cavity.
2. Insert a three inch long wooden strip into the duck’s cavity, block it horizontally between the two wing bones, insert a tube into the duck’s head, and blow air to make the duck fully inflate.
3. Rinse the duck skin with boiling water until it bulges. Boil and dissolve the duck skin mixture. Spread the duck skin evenly and hang it in the wind to dry.
4. Using a fork to support the duck and place it on the stove, it must be repeatedly rotated and oiled multiple times, until the skin is crispy and golden red, and served on a plate.
5. If roasting in the oven, wrap the duck in tin foil and bake until it is eight years old. Remove the tin foil and bake until the duck skin turns golden yellow. Take out and pour the duck skin in boiling oil until crispy and serve on a plate.
6. Serve the duck skin while it is hot, accompanied by scallions, green melons, sweet noodle sauce, and pancakes.
Duck embryo, originally used as the raw material for Beijing roast duck, is Beijing stuffed duck. The duck is plump and white all over, and the feed made from naked oats flour and other nutrients is stuffed into the duck’s esophagus by skilled workers at regular times every day. The duck hardly eats on its own, which has also given rise to the term “stuffed duck teaching”. As a duck, there are strict regulations on its growth time, and there is a saying that only ducks that grow for 45 days are used. Due to changes in people’s tastes, overly fatty duck meat is no longer popular, and roast duck restaurants have switched to lean meat type ducks. After washing and peeling the duck, pour water into its belly and seal its cloaca with an iron needle. When roasting, the duck body is intact, and due to the cooling effect of the water in the belly, the taste of the duck meat is tender and smooth.
Roast duck can be divided into two types – hanging oven roast duck and braised oven roast duck.
Stewing furnace: With a furnace door, it uses sorghum straw as fuel. When baking, first burn the fuel such as sorghum straw in the oven. Wait until the inner wall of the oven heats up to a certain temperature before extinguishing the fire. Then, put the duck into the oven, close the door, and use the heat of the oven wall to bake the duck until it is cooked. Throughout the entire process, the duck did not see any open flames, did not open the furnace door in the middle, did not rotate the duck body, and put it in and out of the furnace one at a time. Due to the use of residual temperature on the furnace wall for roasting, the air humidity is high, the oil consumption is low, and the duck breast meat is noisy. The famous Beijing time-honored brand “Cheap Fang” is known for its braised oven roast duck.
Hanging furnace: There is no furnace door, and fruit wood (mostly jujube or pear wood) is used as fuel. This fuel is resistant to burning, smokeless, and has a refreshing aroma after combustion. When hanging the furnace for firing, the furnace is open. After the duck enters the furnace, the position of the duck should be regularly adjusted with a pick rod to ensure that the duck is evenly heated and can be roasted all over. The duck embryo of the oven roasted duck is evenly and strongly heated, and the subcutaneous fat has melted. The roasted duck skin is crispy and tender. The method of hanging oven roast duck and braising oven roast duck slices is different. Hanging oven roast duck emphasizes that every piece of meat must have a skin on it, while stewing oven roast duck separates the skin and meat.
The roasted duck is sliced into small pieces with a knife, called “sliced duck”. Ideally, it should be sliced in 2 minutes and 30 seconds, paired with shredded scallions, cucumber, and sweet noodle sauce, and served in a thin pancake. The remaining duck rack after removing duck meat can be used for soup making.
Treatment of ducks
Take a bowl and add 100 grams of warm water and refined salt. Place the two wings of the duck together, with the left thumb and index finger gripping the base of the duck’s arm. The duck’s back should be close to the back of the hand, and the little finger should hook up the duck’s right leg. Then, hold the duck’s mouth with either hand, and bend the neck upwards. Give the head to the thumb and index finger gripping the root of the duck’s arm, and pinch it between the duck’s head and neck. At this point, the duck’s breast should be facing upwards. Use a knife to make a small cut at the neck of the duck, about the size of a soybean seed, to cut off the trachea. Immediately pinch the duck’s beak with your hand or hand, pull the neck up and down diagonally, drop the blood into the bowl, break the drop until the duck stops shaking, and then go down to the boiler to scald.
When the water temperature is 61 ℃, remove the duck from the pot and remove it from the pot at 64 ℃. Depending on the size of the hot pot, the next one to several can be used. After cooking, pull the duck’s paw with your left hand to float the duck inside the pot, and use your right hand to use a wooden stick to stir the duck’s fur at any time to make it quickly permeable.
remove the hairs or feathers
After the duck feathers are blanched out of the pot, start to peel them while they are hot.
Stretching sequence: first stretching the breast, then stretching the neck, then stretching the back, grabbing the crotch, and pulling the tail tip. Depending on the different parts of the duck body, both hands can be used.
First, use one end of the tweezer blade with your thumb to twist and pluck it close to the duck feather. If necessary, use the tweezer head to pluck and pluck it. Do not tear the duck skin, especially the duck breast, to avoid air leakage during embryo opening and oil leakage during roasting, which may affect the appearance.
Wash the duck and place it on a wooden table. Cut off both palms from below the calf joints, cut off the esophagus and trachea in the throat, and then pull out the duck tongue from the mouth. Hold the duck head in your left hand, pull out the esophagus from the incision in your throat with your right hand, and push your thumb along the esophagus towards the crop to separate the esophagus from the surrounding connective tissue. After esophageal dissection, do not break it and remain in the neck cavity. Or insert the air nozzle of the air pump into the neck cavity through the blade, hold the neck and air nozzle together with the left hand, open the air valve, and slowly charge the air into the subcutaneous fat and connective tissue of the duck body. When the air is 80% full, close the air valve, remove the air nozzle, and tightly clamp the root of the duck neck with the index finger of the left hand to prevent air leakage. Hold the duck neck and right arm with the thumb and middle finger, and hold the right leg of the duck with the right hand. Lie the duck breast outward, and squeeze both hands towards the middle, Fill all parts of the duck body with gas. After pumping air, the duck can no longer hold its breast with its hands, but can only hold its wings, leg bones, and head and neck. Because the fingers touch the area where the air is pumped, there will be concave fingerprints that affect the quality of the roast duck.
Continue to grip the duck neck and right arm with the left hand, clamp the index finger tightly at the base to block the air, insert the index finger of the right hand into the anus and bend slightly downwards, pull off the rectum and hook it out of the body, making it easier to remove the intestinal tube when removing the tube. Use your right thumb to push back twice under the right armpit of the duck to expel the subcutaneous gas, and then use a small knife to make a crescent shaped incision about 5 centimeters long that bends towards the back. Insert your right thumb into the blade, push down the serrated bone attached to the duck spine, and insert your index finger tightly against the duck chest to extract the heart. Stick your back towards your head and pull out your trachea and esophagus. After removing the esophagus, tighten it with the left hand and then peel off the connective tissue around the gizzard and liver with the index finger of the right hand. Hook the duck gizzard and pull it outward. At the same time, release the duck neck with the left hand and only pull the esophagus. Xuan and his right hand pull the duck gizzard out of the body. Use your right index finger to remove the liver and intestines. Finally, extend your index finger along the spine to remove both lungs and chest wall. After removing all the internal organs, use one section of sorghum stalks, with one end cut into a triangle and the other end cut into a fork, to create a “duck support”. Then, the right person holds one end of the triangle and extends it into the duck’s chest from the side of the knife. First, clamp the forked end onto the spine of the knife, and then move one end of the triangle forward to make it stand upright and support it on the three forked bones of the chest. This will make the duck’s breast bulge and prevent it from flattening during roasting. Cut off the two wings from the first joint of the duck’s bladder root.
Hold the duck’s right arm in the left hand and the duck’s left leg in the right hand, with the breast facing upwards, and place it flat in a clear water pool, filling it with water from the blade. At this point, the left thumb extends into the side of the body and presses against the spine. The index and middle fingers grip the neck of the duck, and use the palm of the hand to lift the tail downward. The right index finger extends into the anus and hooks out the back intestine, which is the small curved segment of the intestine left at the anal end, to discharge water from the anus. Next, fill the duck with clean water, insert the right thumb into the knife edge, support the duck’s back with your hand, head down, and let the water flow out of the duck’s neck. Wash repeatedly until thoroughly cleaned.
It is to hang the duck for easy scalding, sugar making, skin drying, and roasting. Hold the duck head with your left thumb behind and lift it up. Use your right thumb and index finger to stretch the skin of the duck neck, then use your right index finger to reach into the side knife and hold the “duck support”. Hold the duck’s right arm with the other hands to make the duck body vertical. At this time, release the duck head with your left hand and move it downward to hold half of the duck neck with your palm. Use your thumb to lift it up and bend the duck neck with your head facing down. Hold the duck neck firmly with the other four fingers; Holding the duck hook with your right hand, immediately lift the hook up and pass it through the dorsal side of the neck about 3.3 centimeters, then penetrate through the muscles on the inner side of the neck bone, allowing the duck hook family to penetrate the neck.
It is the process of scalding the duck skin with 100 ℃ boiling water to compress the pores, solidify the protein layer of the epidermis, and maximize the expansion of subcutaneous gas. The skin is tight, shiny, and smooth, making it easy to bake.
Scalding method: Hold the hook and loop with your left hand, make the duck breast outward, and scoop a spoonful of boiling water with your right hand. First, wash the side edge of the body and let the water come down from the shoulder, seal the edge to prevent air leakage, and then evenly scald the entire body.
It is to sprinkle sugar water on the duck to make it have a jujube red color and increase its crispness. Sugar water is diluted with 50 grams of malt sugar and 450 grams of water. Cover the entire body of the roasted duck with sugar water and beat twice using the method of watering. Then, drain the blood and water from the chamber and hold it in a well ventilated place to dry. If the duck was not roasted at that time, it can be stored in a cold storage room. Before roasting in the oven, sugar should be added once again to enhance the appearance of the skin color and compensate for the unevenness of the first sugar addition. When making the second round of sugar in summer, add an extra 5 grams of malt sugar to the sugar solution.
It is to dry the water inside and outside the duck skin, and to tightly connect the skin with the subcutaneous connective tissue, making the skin thicker and the roasted duck skin crispy. At the same time, it can maintain its original shape and prevent the chest from sagging during roasting. The skin must be dried only in a cool and ventilated place, and cannot be dried in the sun to prevent oil from flowing from the skin and affecting the quality.
Before the roast duck is put into the oven, insert an 8-centimeter long sorghum stalk into the anus, which is called “blockage”. There is a section that needs to be inserted into the anus, which happens to be stuck in the sphincter muscle to prevent the inflow of boiling water and outflow. Then pour 80% full of boiling water into the blade on the side of the body. When roasting, the duck is cooked inside and roasted outside, which is faster and can supplement the excessive consumption of water in the duck meat. The duck meat is crispy on the outside and tender on the inside.
After the duck enters the furnace, first roast the right back side of the duck, that is, listen to one side of the knife edge, so that no hot air enters the chamber from the knife edge, and then boil the water. 6 to 7 minutes, when the duck skin is orange, turn to the left back side and bake for 3 to 4 minutes. When it is also orange, bake the left body side for another 3 to 4 minutes and lift the left crotch for 30 seconds; Bake the right side of the body for 3 to 4 minutes and lift the right crotch for 30 seconds; Roast duck back for 4-5 minutes. Then, grill in the above sequence until all colors are ripe.
Sliced duck method
After the duck is roasted and taken out of the oven, remove the “blockage” first, release the boiling water from the belly, and then slice the duck. The order is: first cut the duck head, with the duck breast facing upwards, and make an oblique cut from the front protruding part of the duck breast to the neck and breast. Then, make three or four cuts from the right chest side and three or four cuts from the left chest side, and cut the locking bone forward. After slicing the wing meat, pull up the wing bone and pin it inward on the duck neck. After slicing the duck leg meat, pull up the leg bones and place them in the armpit until they reach the duck buttocks. After completing the film on the right, slice the left in the above order. A 2000g roast duck can produce approximately 90 slices of meat. Finally, chop off the duck’s beak and make a straight cut from the middle of the head. Divide the duck’s head into two halves, then remove the pointed tail and tear off the left and right ribs attached to the duck’s sternum. Place them together on a plate and serve.
1. During the duck processing stage, when slaughtering the duck, the tighter the neck skin, the better, in order to benefit the duck; When ironing, flip it over according to the water permeability to make the duck feathers evenly permeable, and when the duck feathers on the head can be removed with a gentle push of the hand, it indicates that the whole body of duck feathers is moderately hot; When inflating, do not inflate too much to avoid causing cracks and air leakage. On the contrary, too little inflation will cause the appearance to wrinkle and not be full; During the process of digging, the duck’s back should always lean against the wooden divine machine to prevent the duck from escaping and changing its appearance; When washing the chamber, ducks should not be placed on the side to avoid squeezing out the air; The hook should not break the neck bone, or only penetrate the skin without putting on the muscles, to prevent the neck from breaking and falling off during baking. When scalding the duck skin, do not pour too much or too little water, as excessive water can easily dissolve fat. After the duck skin is dried, oil flows out of the pores, and the area where the oil flows cannot be tightly closed, making it easy to escape air. Additionally, the skin is loose and not beautiful in appearance. Do not soak the tail in a boiling pot to avoid causing it to shrink and look unsightly. The drying process varies depending on the season. In summer, it can be cloudy and rainy. After the first use of sugar, it can be stored in an ice store and taken out to dry 2 hours before baking. In winter, it must be dried indoors at around 0 ℃; Air it indoors at 8 ℃ for about 10 hours in spring and autumn. When airing, do not squeeze and touch the duck bodies to avoid crushing the outer skin and escaping air.
2. Ovens have hanging ovens, stewing ovens, and converters, usually using hanging ovens. Hanging oven roast duck relies on the reflection effect of heat, that is, the flame emits heat from the upper wall of the furnace door and shoots it into the furnace. After heating the top wall, it is reflected onto the duck body, resulting in incomplete necktie flame direct roasting. The furnace temperature should be stable between 230 ℃ and 250 ℃ to avoid being too high or too low. If it is too high, it will cause the duck skin to shrink and the shoulders to turn black; If it is too low, it will cause wrinkles on the duck chest. The roasting time should be determined according to the different seasons and the size and quantity of ducks, and cannot be too long or too short. Generally speaking, it takes about 45 minutes to roast a 2000 gram duck in winter, 35 grams of duck in summer, 40 minutes in winter, and 30 minutes in summer. When baking, be careful not to direct your chest towards the fire, as the tender meat can easily scorch and even cause cracks and bubbles. The legs are thick and least cooked, and the roasting time is longer. The duck crotch is not easy to color and needs to be manually lifted. The method is to lift the duck, shake it slightly on the flame, and color the crotch. Pay attention to where the color is missing, and do not affect other parts, especially the breast meat.
3. There are two methods for slicing ducks. One type is that the skin and flesh are not divided, which is originally a combination of skin and skin, and can be sliced into pieces or strips; One way is to separate the skin and meat, first slicing the skin and then slicing the meat. The first method is usually used, with the left hand supporting the tip of the duck leg bone or the duck neck, and the right hand holding a knife with the thumb that can be flexibly pressed against the side of the blade. After the blade enters the meat, the thumb presses on the meat slice and the knife surface to lift the meat slice off.
Pay attention to the way of eating
Beijing roast duck has become a world-renowned delicacy. Throughout history, gourmets have tried Beijing roast duck with many delicacies, but it seems that if it is not eaten in this way, it cannot reflect the authentic flavor. To sum up, there are mainly four aspects to these considerations:
Pay attention to the season
Eating roast duck must be in the appropriate season, as bad seasons can affect the taste. Tasters advocate that eating roast duck in winter, spring, and autumn has the best flavor. The reason is that ducks in winter and spring have plump and tender meat; In autumn, the sky is high and the air is cool, and the temperature and humidity are particularly suitable for making roast ducks. At this time, ducks are also relatively plump. The summer climate is hot and the air humidity is high. At this time, the duck meat is less fat and thin, and the quality is poor. The roasted duck skin is prone to cracking (i.e. not crispy), so the taste is relatively poor.
Pay attention to film method
Because good slices not only enhance the shape of the dishes, but also enhance their taste. After roasting the duck, it is necessary to slice off the skin and meat in a timely manner before the duck breast collapses and serve it on a plate. At this moment, the duck meat tastes crispy and delicious in the mouth. The method of slicing duck is also exquisite. Firstly, slice the duck skin while it is hot, making it crispy and delicious; Then eat a slice of duck meat. The second is that each piece has a belt of flesh, which is thin but not broken. A 2-kilogram duck can produce over 100 pieces of duck meat, and the size is even, like clove leaves. The taste is crispy, fragrant, tender, and unique.
Pay attention to seasoning
Why can’t roast duck be eaten directly? This is because ducks are fatter and eating them directly can be very greasy. There are three main ways to eat Beijing roast duck, paired with different seasonings. The first method is to use chopsticks to pick up a bit of sweet noodle sauce, spread it on the lotus leaf cake, cover it with a few pieces of roast duck, and add a few scallion, cucumber, or radish strips. Roll up the lotus leaf cake, which is the most common way to eat it. The second type: Garlic paste with soy sauce, can also be paired with radish sticks, etc. Garlic puree can relieve greasiness. Dipping sliced roasted duck in garlic puree and soy sauce adds a hint of spiciness and a unique flavor to the fresh aroma. The third type: Some customers do not like to eat scallions or garlic, so they like to dip the crispy and crispy duck skin in fine white sugar to eat. This eating method is particularly suitable for women and children. It is understood that there are also many nutritional benefits to eating roasted duck. According to professionals, roast duck is often consumed together with scallions, garlic, cucumber strips, etc. It not only plays a role in balancing acidity and alkalinity, but also has the function of reducing cholesterol and increasing fibrinolytic activity in these foods, such as vitamin C and dietary fiber, to aid digestion. The first seasoning method is now the most commonly used, and the sweet noodle sauce used should be made from Beijing’s “Liubiju”, otherwise the taste cannot be considered authentic.
Pay attention to supplementary food
There are two commonly used auxiliary foods for eating roast duck, one is lotus leaf cake; One is a hollow sesame pancake. Lotus leaf pancakes can be peeled in one piece, and each piece can be coated with sweet dough sauce, followed by scallions, cucumber strips, (or green radish strips), grilled duck slices, or garlic paste, soy sauce, cucumber strips (or green radish strips), and then wrapped with grilled duck slices to eat. In the early years, Quanjude Roast Duck Restaurant also had a type of millet porridge cooked with barley and red beans all year round. This kind of millet porridge has a beautiful color, smooth and refreshing taste. After eating roasted duck, drinking a small bowl of this specially made millet porridge will definitely bring you an unparalleled sense of comfort.
Lotus leaf cake, also known as white pancakes, dough pancakes, rolls, pancakes, and baked buns, can be of different sizes. The larger one can have a diameter of over 25cm, while the smaller one is only as big as a palm. It is a traditional flavor snack that is popular among people in both urban and rural areas of Shaanxi. All hotels and restaurants offer it, and you can also find it on the buffet. Lotus leaf cake evolved from the “white cake” during the Qin and Han dynasties and has a history of over 2000 years. There is a record of “lotus leaf cakes” in the Song Dynasty’s “Dream of Tokyo”. According to the Qing Dynasty’s “Collection of Tiaoding”, “Pancakes: small tin jars made by the Qin people, containing thirty pieces of cakes, each serving a jar of cakes, small as oranges, with a lid that can be stored. The filling is made of fried shredded meat, which is as thin as hair and scallions, and used together with pigs and sheep, known as’ Xibing ‘. From this, it can be seen that the thin cakes made by the “Qin people” in Shaanxi are the current lotus leaf cakes. Generally, a cake blank with plain oil in the middle is stacked together and baked on a flat pan. Two pieces can be baked at once, which is faster in production and produces a softer lotus leaf cake, while also reducing the heat. From the rolling dishes of lotus leaf cakes, they are also rich and colorful, which can be rolled into vegetarian or meat dishes. Vegetables include fried bean sprouts, mung bean sprouts, pea sprouts, shredded potatoes, fried pickled Chinese cabbage, pickles, vermicelli, leeks, fried soybeans, and shredded eggs; Meat dishes include shredded pork belly, shredded chicken, pork, beef, shredded lamb, and lung strips. Add a plate of tender whip onions and a plate of sweet noodle sauce, and if it is further mixed into the sliced roast duck, it will have a more delicious taste.
Flavor characteristics: Slightly yellow in color, soft and fragrant, used for rolling other meat and vegetable foods, commonly used as a pastry for banquets, and also a home style snack.
How to Choose High Quality Roast Duck
In May 2011, the media exposed “Beijing Black Heart Roast Duck”, but subsequent investigations revealed that all information on the packaging of the black roast duck was fake. This type of duck is processed from a disassembled duck rack, which means removing the fat parts of the duck’s chest, thighs, neck, skin, and other meat, leaving the remaining skeleton and some internal organs. The removed parts are then sold as other small foods at high prices. Duck racks and other duck by-products are used to produce Beijing roast duck with sauce and brine. Due to the low value of the duck rack, the wholesale price of a bag of plastic wrapped “Beijing Roast Duck” is only around 3 yuan. The emergence of black heart roast duck in the market has harmed many consumers. Black heart roast duck is mostly made by simply processing chicken and inferior pork with additives, adjuvants, and chemicals, which is harmful to the human body but not beneficial. Therefore, it is crucial to distinguish the quality of roast duck. There are two situations: one is freshly roasted roast duck, and the other is packaged roast duck.
The freshly roasted roast duck has a plump body and uniform color, with a bright red or burnt yellow color preferred. It has no bloodstains, thick and crispy skin, and is burnt on the outside and tender on the inside. It has a feeling of melting at the mouth, and can be smelled with just a blade. It also has a refreshing aroma of fruit wood, making it a top grade delicacy.
For the packaged roast duck, we can see from the outer packaging that the inner packaging is fully transparent, and the contents are divided into two types according to specifications: half and one. If the contents do not meet the specifications, or if sweet noodle sauce, duck meat pieces, or shredded meat are added, it is considered defective. The vacuum Beijing Quanjude roast duck has a unique identification code on the inner packaging bag, which is randomly generated and corresponds to the production batch and variety of this product. In addition, it can also be judged from the shading of the packaging color: the authentic color is bright, the details of the upper end pattern are clear, and the production license drawing on the back is blue according to the standard; The overall color of the imitation is darker, with a green pattern on the upper end and a purple pattern on the back of the production license.